Harcourt Brown & Carey Energy and Finance, engaged by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), performed a review of programs conducted in the US to finance the cost of energy efficiency improvements through a surcharge on the electric utility bill that is tied to the affected property’s electric or gas meter (on-bill financing). Specifically, Harcourt Brown & Carey developed five case studies of such programs with the goal of characterizing each program’s track record and identifying lessons learned. Harcourt Brown & Carey and EDF developed a survey instrument for conducting the case studies. After evaluating the surveys, Harcourt Brown & Carey discerned positive attributes of the programs as well as key challenges. Harcourt Brown & Carey also provided EDF with recommendations for the design of effective on-bill financing programs.